Chapter 10 Notes

Why Argue?

Why do people write arguments?

People write arguments in pursuance of a goal.  To persuade people to believe what they believe, or at least see from their perspective.

Why do some arguments succeed?

Writing an argument, and knowing your audience, will make your argument succeed.  Writing an argument that is well researched, giving you expertise knowledge in the argument will help it succeed. 

What are the goals of arguments?

An effective position argument.  This does not solve the problem, just points the problem out.

A proposal argument gives solutions to the position argument.

Position Arguments:

The writer makes a claim about a controversial issue.

The writer first has to define the issue.

The writer should take a clear position.

The writer should make a convincing argument and acknowledge opposing views.

Proposal Arguments:

The writer proposes a course of action in response to a recognizable problem.

The writer first has to define the problem.

The writer has to propose a solution or solutions.

The solution or solutions must work, and they must be feasible.

What are Rhetorical Appeals?

The most important teacher of rhetoric in ancient Greece was Aristotle, who made the study of rhetoric systematic.  He defined rhetoric as the art of finding the best available means of persuasion in any situation.  Aristotle set out three primary tactics of arguments: pathos, ethos and logos. 

Appeals to Pathos: the Values of the Audience

Appleas to pathos are often associated with emotional appeals, but it does have broader meanings.  Pathos means connecting with the underlying values, beliefs and attitudes of your readers / audience. 

Appeals to Ethos: the Trustworthiness of the Speaker or Writer

Ethos refers to the credibility of a speaker or writer. 

Appeals to Logos: the Good Reasons or Logic Used to Support an Argument

Logos means persuading by using reasons.  Sometimes refered to “The argument itself.”  Logos was preferred by Aristotle. 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *